Практические задания

I. Переведите предложения, содержащие эмфатические конструкции. Постарайтесь сохранить усиление при переводе.

1. Some people can hear sounds as high as 20,000 cycles.

2. In the chemical reaction the temperature of gases may be as high as 3,5000 Centigrade.

3. The possibility of discharge large amounts of energy was demonstrated as early as in 1919 by Rutherford.

4. It is the programme that ensures the execution of all operations assigned to the computer.

5. It is the programmer who is the connecting link between the computer and the problem it has to solve.

6. It was not until the 20th century that electronic computers were constructed and put into operation.

7. If only a few of the insulator’s molecules do release one electron each, the insulator at once completely breaks down and becomes a conductor.

8. Emission or evaporation of electrons does take place at lower temperatures.

II. Выполните полный письменный перевод следующих текстов. Определите способы передачи при переводе глаголов в страдательном залоге. Найдите эмфатические конструкции и сохраните усиление в переводе. Найдите случаи перевода артикля.

Computer crime

Computer crime is a way to commit crime, not a type of crime. By the mid-1980s computers were in use in nearly every kind of commercial, financial and industrial enterprise. As record­keeping devices, computers are unsurpassed in the amount of information that can be kept on a readily available file. Credit card companies, banks, savings and loan associations, insurance companies, credit bureaus and many other institutions keep computerized customer files. This information is for the private and confidential use of the customer and the institution.

Access to such confidential information, as well as or more complex computer systems operated by government agencies, has been gained by computer experts, often with the intent to defraud or embezzle. Someone working within a bank or other financial organization may easily gain access to the company’s computers to transfer funds to his own or a friend’s account or to another bank.

Owners of personal home computers, too, have found ways to break into company computer systems. To accomplish a break-in of this kind, a computer operator needs a modem, a device that will connect his computer by telephone to another computer system. He also needs to know how to access another system through its code. For the average person, this would be a very difficult task; but for someone well-versed in computer logic, it has proved relatively easy. Billions of dollars are being lost through computer theft each year.

Videoconferencing Takes Centre Stage

With the downturn in business travel after September 11th, one of the technologies predicted to boom is videoconferencing. Corporate bans on flying in the aftermath of the terror attacks throw a new light on the benefits of meeting by video. According to IT market research company Frost & Sullivan, videoconferencing, web-casting and other electronic alternatives to face-to-face meetings in distant locations have experienced renewed interest following the attacks and subsequent concern over travel.

Long-predicted as a technology due to take-off, videoconferencing has failed to deliver for a variety of reasons. However, market and technological changes have presented videoconferencing vendors with the opportunity to make videoconferencing as much a part of everyday office life as the PC, fax or photocopier. The CeBIT fair will see the latest videoconferencing systems on display, including low-cost, PC-based solutions.

Today the main demand for videoconferencing comes from larger organisations where systems are predominantly used by senior staff members. This should change over the next few years as penetration into a larger number of small- to medium-sized businesses intensifies and corporate usage is used for everyday meetings.

As with most other sectors of the IT industry, videoconferencing is being driven by the Internet. Previously, videoconferencing systems were proprietary and used slow telecommunications transmission technology. Today, the market is moving to Internet Protocol (IP) technology - whereby data is sent over the Internet in a stream of information packets.

The use of IP technology will mean cost-savings for end-users, as manufacturers use standardized equipment and components. Broadband will also mean an improvement in the quality of sound and pictures.

While it may still be several years before videoconferencing over IP networks takes off, there is consensus in the industry that IP will hold the key to future success. Frost & Sullivan predicts that 2004 will be a watershed year for the videoconferencing market in Europe. The impact of videoconferencing over IP will take the technology into the mainstream.