Unit Two. Standardization process


Pre-text exercise. Transcribe and translate the following words: 


 

Preliminary

Item

Committee

Amendment

Specification

Corrigendum

Enquiry

Withdrawal

Maturity

Clarify

Verification

Quorum


 


Read and translate the text.

 

Standardization process

         A standard published by ISO/IEC is the last stage of a long process that commonly starts with the proposal of new work within a committee. Here are some abbreviations used for marking a standard with its status:

  • PWI - Preliminary Work Item
  • NP or NWIP - New Proposal / New Work Item Proposal
  • AWI - Approved new Work Item
  • WD - Working Draft
  • CD - Committee Draft
  • FCD - Final Committee Draft
  • DIS - Draft International Standard
  • FDIS - Final Draft International Standard
  • PRF - Proof of a new International Standard
  • IS - International Standard

         Abbreviations used for amendments:

  • NP Amd - New Proposal Amendment
  • AWI Amd - Approved new Work Item Amendment
  • WD Amd - Working Draft Amendment
  • CD Amd / PD Amd - Committee Draft Amendment / Proposed Draft Amendment
  • FPD Amd / DAM (D Amd) - Final Proposed Draft Amendment / Draft Amendment
  • FDAM (FD Amd) - Final Draft Amendment
  • Amd - Amendment

         Other abbreviations:

  • TR - Technical Report
  • DTR - Draft Technical Report
  • TS - Technical Specification
  • DTS - Draft Technical Specification
  • PAS - Publicly Available Specification
  • TTA - Technology Trends Assessment
  • IWA - International Workshop Agreement
  • Cor - Technical Corrigendum
  • Guide - a guidance to technical committees for the preparation of standards

         International Standards are developed by ISO technical committees (TC) and subcommittees (SC) by a process with six steps:

  • Stage 1: Proposal stage
  • Stage 2: Preparatory stage
  • Stage 3: Committee stage
  • Stage 4: Enquiry stage
  • Stage 5: Approval stage
  • Stage 6: Publication stage

         The TC/SC may set up working groups (WG) of experts for the preparation of working drafts. Subcommittees may have several working groups, which can have several Sub Groups (SG).

 

 

Stages in the development process of an ISO standard

Stage code

Stage

Associated document name

Abbreviations

Description

00

Preliminary stage

Preliminary work item

PWI

 

 

10

 

Proposal stage

 

New work item proposal

NP or NWIP, NP Amd/TR/TS/IWA

 

 

20

 

Preparatory stage

 

Working draft(s)

 

AWI, AWI Amd/TR/TS, WD, WD Amd/TR/TS

 

30

 

Committee stage

 

Committee draft(s)

 

CD, CD Amd/Cor/TR/TS, PD Amd (PDAM), PDTR, PDTS

 

40

 

Enquiry stage

Enquiry draft

 

DIS, FCD, FPD Amd, D Amd (DAM), FPDISP, DTR, DTS

 

(CDV in IEC)

50

 

Approval stage

 

Final draft International Standard

FDIS, FD Amd (FDAM), PRF, PRF Amd/TTA/TR/TS/Suppl, FDTR

 

60

 

Publication stage

 

International Standard

ISO TR, TS, IWA, Amd, Cor

 

90

 

Review stage

 

ISO TR, TS, IWA, Amd, Cor

 

95

 

Withdrawal stage

 

 

 

        

         It is possible to omit certain stages, if there is a document with a certain degree of maturity at the start of a standardization project, for example a standard developed by another organization. ISO/IEC directives allow also the so-called "Fast-track procedure". In this procedure a document is submitted directly for approval as a draft International Standard (DIS) to the ISO member bodies or as a final draft International Standard (FDIS) if the document was developed by an international standardizing body recognized by the ISO Council.

         The first step — a proposal of work (New Proposal) is approved at the relevant subcommittee or technical committee (e.g., SC29 and JTC1 respectively in the case of Moving Picture Experts Group - ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11). A working group (WG) of experts is set up by the TC/SC for the preparation of a working draft. When the scope of a new work is sufficiently clarified, some of the working groups (e.g., MPEG) usually make open request for proposals—known as a "call for proposals". The first document that is produced for example for audio and video coding standards is called a verification model (VM) (previously also called a "simulation and test model"). When a sufficient confidence in the stability of the standard under development is reached, a working draft (WD) is produced. This is in the form of a standard but is kept internal to working group for revision. When a working draft is sufficiently solid and the working group is satisfied that it has developed the best technical solution to the problem being addressed, it becomes committee draft (CD). If it is required, it is then sent to the P-members of the TC/SC (national bodies) for ballot.

         The CD becomes final committee draft (FCD) if the number of positive votes is above the quorum. Successive committee drafts may be considered until consensus is reached on the technical content. When it is reached, the text is finalized for submission as a draft International Standard (DIS). The text is then submitted to national bodies for voting and comment within a period of five months. It is approved for submission as a final draft International Standard (FDIS) if a two-thirds majority of the P-members of the TC/SC are in favour and not more than one-quarter of the total number of votes cast are negative. ISO will then hold a ballot with National Bodies where no technical changes are allowed (yes/no ballot), within a period of two months. It is approved as an International Standard (IS) if a two-thirds majority of the P-members of the TC/SC is in favour and not more than one-quarter of the total number of votes cast are negative. After approval, only minor editorial changes are introduced into the final text. The final text is sent to the ISO Central Secretariat, which publishes it as the International Standard.

 

Exercise I. Write down the following abbreviations in full.

 


1. PWI

2. WD

3. CD

4. FCD

5. DIS

6. FDIS

7. IS

8. TR

9. DTR

10. TS

11. DTS

12. PAS

13. TTA

14. IWA


 

Exercise II. Complete the sentences with the following words:

P-members, working draft, working groups, quorum, process, document, national bodies.

 

         1. A standard published by ISO/IEC is the last stage of a long __________ that commonly starts with the proposal of new work within a committee.

         2. The TC/SC may set up __________ of experts for the preparation of working drafts.

         3. The text is then submitted to __________ for voting and comment within a period of five months.

         4. A working group (WG) of experts is set up by the TC/SC for the preparation of a __________.

         5. The first __________ that is produced for example for audio and video coding standards is called a verification model.

         6. If it is required, it is then sent to __________ of the TC/SC (national bodies) for ballot.

         7. The CD becomes final committee draft if the number of positive votes is above the __________.

 

Exercise III. Give the antonyms to the following words:

1. Positive

2. Total

3. Send

4. After

5. The best

6. Possible

7. Long