I. THE NOUN.


Plural forms of Nouns

                                  Spelling rules of plural forms of nouns

Если буква  у стоит после гласной, при прибавлении   окончания  s  она остается без изменения:

 

a day – days, a  boy – boys, a toy - toys

Если буква  у стоит после согласной, во множественном числе к существительному прибавляется окончание – es; буква  у изменяется на  i:

 

a family – families,  an army - armies

Если в единственном числе существительное оканчивается на  -f   и  -fe, во множественном числе - f  и  - fe  изменятся на   -  ves.

 

a leaf  - leaves, a wife – wives, a knife - knives

У следующих существительных, оканчивающихся на -f, во множествительном числе прибавляется - s, при этом буква

- f  остается  без изменения.

a roof – roofs,  a chief – chiefs, a handkerchief – handkerchiefs

 

Special cases of forming plural forms of nouns

 

Singular

Plural

man

                                    woman

                                    foot

                                    tooth

                                    mouse

                                     louse

child

men

     women

feet

 teeth

 mice

                                    lice

children

 

Formation of plural forms of compound nouns

 

Singular

Plural

В сложных существительных, где есть слова man, woman оба элемента принимают форму множественного числа.

man-doctor  – men-doctors

woman-writer – women-wrioters

У сложных существительных окончание – s прибавляется к основному слову:

 

passer-by – passers-by

mother-in-law – mothers-in-law

 

 

Formation of plural forms of nouns borrowed from the Greek and Latin languages

 

Singular

Plural

analysis    анализ

basis         базис, база

bacillus     бацилла

crisis         кризис

datum       данные

nucleus     ядро

radius       радиус

analyses    анализы

bases         базисы базы

bacili         бациллы

crises         кризисы

data            данные

nucliei        ядра

radii            радиусы

 

Nouns, having the same plural forms in singular and plural

 

Singular

Plural

sheep    овца

deer       олень

fish       рыба  

fruit      фрукт

hair       волос

sheep     овцы

deer       олени

fish        рыбы

fruit       фрукты

hair        волосы    

 

Nouns, having no plural forms

 

Material nouns

Nouns denoting abstract notions

iron

gold

milk

snow

air

love

freedom

friendship

Nouns

 

advice   совет                                                              money         деньги

information  cсведения                                              news            новости

knowledgeзнаниеpermissionпозволение

progress       прогресс

 

Difference in using nouns in the singular and plural forms in the English and Russian language

 

English

Russian

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

watch

wathes

В единственном числе не употребляются

часы (наручные)

clock

clocks

часы (стенные)

sledge

sledges

сани

vacation

vacations

каникулы

news

 

В множественном числе не употребляются

новость

новости

information

информация

информации

advice

совет

советы

knowledge

знание

знания

strength

сила

силы

Exercise  1.  Point out the morphological composition of the following nouns:

 

Snow, sandstone, impossibility, widower, opinion, examination, passer-by, misunderstanding, inactivity, snowball, kingdom, anticyclone, mother-of-pearl, immobility, might, warmth, succession, ex-president, nurse, misdeed, wisdom, blackbird, alternation, policeman, merry-go-round, boyhood, usefulness, fortune, friendship, statesman, brother-in-law,  smelling-salt.

 

Exercise  2. Point out the nouns and define the class they belong to:

 

1. Don’t forget, Pettinger, Europe is still the heart of the world, and Germany the heart of Europe. 2. His face was sick with pain and rage. 3. He drank coffee, letting the warmth go through his cold, tired body. 4. But there is one place I met with the brotherhood of man, and it was in the Communist Party. 5. The mysteries of storm and rain and tide were revealed. 6. Having set the tea, she stood by the table and said slowly: “Tea’s ready, Father. I’m going to London” 7. By this time , quite a small crowd had collected, and people were asking each other what was the matter. 8. He was professor of physics. 9. “I have some luggage”, he said, “at the Brumblehurst station” and he asked her how he could have it. 10. In the kitchen Bowen read  the telegram aloud. 11. The crowd laughed aloud and moved, pushing every way and everybody. 12. George suggested meat and fruit pie, cold meat, tomatoes, fruit and green stuff.  13. The major seemed to be looking at the sky.  14. “It’s not Sunday, tomorrow ”, said Karg. 15. He looked at his audience. 16. His hair was grey and he was short and fat. 16. The moon was shining through the tree stems when they sat again side by side on the log seat. 17. His hair was grey and he was short and fat.

 

Exercise  3. Give plural forms of nouns:

 

Face, portfolio, swine, house, tomato, mother-in-law, basis, clergyman, ox, cry, key, downfall, looker-on, rock, bush, enemy, roof, hero, brunch, sheep, ship, criterion, youth, journey, penknife, man-of-war, loss, datum, goose, deer, pie, Englishman, wolf, mouse, formula, bath, possibility,

forget-me-not, foot, handkerchief, thief, crisis, stepdaughter, birth, echo, finger-tip, joy, extremity, spy, lie.

 

Exercise 4.  Use the appropriate form of the verb.

 

1. “There ______ money in my pocket,” I said to the porter.(is, are) 2. I know my hair ____beautiful, everybody says so. (is, are)  3. The works _____his country, his home, his reason for being. (was, were) 4. These white swine ______not live. (does, do)  5. Means _____easily found (was, were)   6.  “Good,”  I said.  “No one shall tell me again that fish _____no sense with them.” (has, have) 7. The deer _____ravaging the men’s fields. (was, were) 8. Money ____so scarce that it could fairly be said not to exist at all. (was, were) 9. I was here before the gates ______ opened, but  I was afraid to come straight to you.( was, were) 10. The papers ____dull, the news ____ local and stale, and the war news ____ all old. (was,were) 11. At Capracotta, he had told me, there _____trout in the  stream below the town. (was, were) 12. The sugar-tongs ______too wide for one of her hands, and she had to use both in wielding them. (was, were).    13. And all the baggage ______ apparatus and appliances. (contain, contains) 14. The china _____ good, of a delicate pattern. (was, were) 15. The nurse’s wages ____ good… (was, were)

 

Exercise 5.  Put the noun in the genitive case. Explain the use of the genitive case.

 

1. Well, I’d rather be married to a saint that never saw my good looks that to a sinner who saw

every other _____ (woman). 2. The breakfast table at _____ was usually a very pleasant one, and  was always presided over by Bella. (Mr. Boffiin)  3. “ I think ____friendships are much deeper than ______,” Mrs. Thompson said.  (men, women)  4. That night he had chosen a basement bar a ______ throw from Scotland Yard. (stone)   5. As he passed through the _____ room he saw an evening paper spread out conspicuously on the desk of the _____ nephew(clerks, director). 6. But I suppose that need not prevent us from quarreling to our _____content to future. (heart) 7. with one cold glance could she send me back into childhood with all a lonely _____terrors and shames. (child).

8. He stopped to dinner that evening and much to _____ satisfaction made a favorable  impression on her father. (Ruth) 9. He said to her: “ Look at my brother ____ property”. (James) 9. He had not been at _____for nearly two years. (Timothy) 10. Benson was listening among the ______representatives cocking his head on one side. (workers) 11. He had never thought that a mere _____hand could be sweetly soft. (woman) 12. But he was daunted the ne[t moment by his own and ______insignificance.(Milly) 13. But by that time the bride was near the end of the first

______journey towards Florence. (day) 14. You need a good _____sleep. (night) 15. The _____

Wives were more expensively dressed than the Civil ____, and in general more spectacular.(politicians, servants) 16. One evening, on the way to the ______, I saw Irwing sitting on the steps of his house. (grocer)

 

Exercise 6.  Translate into English, using a noun in the genitive where possible.

 

1. Давид провел две недели в Ярмуте у мистера Пеготти. 2. Уезжая в Ярмут, мальчик ничего не знал, о предполагаемом (intended) браке своей матери. 3. После путешествия, которое длилось несколько часов, Пеготти с Давидом прибыли в Ярмут. 4. Приближаясь к дому мистера Пеготти, Давид увидел детскую фигуру, стоявшую  на пороге. 5. Дядя Хэма и Эмили усыновили их, когда они были детьми. 6. Пеготти с гордостью говорила о доброте своего брата. 7. Двухнедельное пребывание в Ярмуте доставило Давиду большое удовольствие. 8. В присутствии мужа миссис Копперфильд боялась приласкать своего сына. 9. После минутной нерешительности Давид подошел к миссис Копперфильд и поцеловала ее. 10. После смерти жены мистер Мердстон послал Давида в Лондон, где мальчик должен был работать в торговом доме (warehouse) Мердстона и Гринби.