Exercise 1. State the kind of the adverbial modifier. Say what the adverbial modifier is expressed by.

1.        "I heard him knocking, so I ran upstairs to let him in." (Greene).

2.        All at once the sheep-dog leapt to its feet. (Bates).

3.        Ben was too busy to hear him now ... (Aldridge).

4.        Gabriel tried to cover his  agitation by taking part in the dance with great  energy.   (Joyce).

5.        I'm here,  I'm working, morning, noon and night. (Berkeley).

6.        Sophie pulled out the dress without saying anything.   (Huxley).

7.        There was a road to Cairo  which   went west across the desert.(Aldridge).

8.        They went down the stairs side by side. (Maugham).

9.        Sometimes it is a joy in the very heart of hell to tell the truth.(Chesterton)


Exercise 2. Insert the adverbial modifier in the appropriate place. Give more than variant if



1.  It will be raining hard  (soon).

2.         The climate has been damp (always, in these parts).

3.         It rains in autumn (usually).

4.         There is no deep river, except the Tamar (on the southern coast of  England).

5.         The tourist put all the equipment which may be necessary during the tour (into his bag).

6.         The ascent of the mountain peak will begin (early in the morn­ing).

7.         Ring me up (before leaving the town).

8.         One strengthens one's health (by mountaineering).

9.         I shall sleep much and take long walks (instead of taking medi­cine).

10.       One must have a good rest (after training).

11.       We sat down to table and had a hearty meal (on returning home).

12.       He jumped at  the offer (being invited  to spend his   vacation in a mountain-camp).

13.       We shall go on an excursion (weather permitting).

14.       We returned to the camp (the sun setting behind the mountains).

15.To his orderly he was cold and ... indifferent (at first). ... the change came (then, gradually). 16.He might have changed his man (easily).

17.He looked direct at his orderly (now, very rarely). ...

18.Asthe young soldier moved, the elder watched him (unthinking, about the apartment).

19. And an undiscovered feeling had held between the two men (from that time).

20. The orderly was afraid of really meeting his master (henceforward).

21. So he stared past his master (always)...

22. He had served the Captain, and knew his duty (for more than a year).

23.This he performed (easily) ...

24.This irritated the officer (more and more).

25.He flew into a rage with the young soldier (sometimes), and bullied him.

26.The words pierced to his intelligence (never) .

27. He had a scar on his left thumb. The officer had suffered from it (long).

28. The Captain grew irritable (madly).

29. He flung a heavy military glove into the young soldier's face (once).

30.The youth tried to keep him­self intact (instinctively).

31.The youth was frightened (deeply). (Lawrence).


Exercise 3. Ask questions on the adverbial modifiers in bold type.


1.         All  the preparations happily completed,  we left  for the South.

2.         I see them  twicea week.

3.    One must handle this apparatus with great care.

4.         After a good rest I  can go miles.

5.         The tourists were tired having covered over 30 miles that day.

6.         But for your advice I shouldn't have acted rightly.

7.         Though very busy they made up their minds to go to that concert by all  means.

8.         She opened the window to air the room.

9.         We have been living here since 1930.

10.        The sailor ran to the front of the boat.

11.        Rumours of his doings reached his relations fromtime to time.

12.        In the fable the ant spends   the summer gathering  its winter store.

13.        Though frightened the child   did not cry.

14.        He opened the door for me to pass.


Exercise 4. Translate into English:


1.         Я никогда нигде не видела таких красивых декораций.

2.         Вы никогда ничего не говорили мне об этом.

3.    Я никуда не поеду ни в июне, ни в июле.

4.    Никогда ни с кем не говорите об этом.

5.         Когда я вошел к ним в дом, никого нигде не было.

6.         Никто никогда  ничего не  говорил  мне об этом.

7.         Сегодня   ниоткуда не поступало новых известий об экспедиции.

8.         Я нигде не мог его найти.

9.    Дальше нам некуда идти, так что мы можем отдохнуть.

10.Старик никак (никаким образом) не смог перебраться черезречку.

11.В это воскресенье мы никуда   не хотим идти.

11.        Я почти никогда ее не вижу.

12.        Я едва мог его понять.

13.        Вы тоже об этом ничего не слышали?


Exercise 5. Make up sentences of your own using the following word combinations

 as ad­verbial modifiers.


1)  of time or frequency:     from time immemorial,  since  then, whena boy, when questioned, on

returning home, from time to time, from that day on, in a day or

two, not until it was done, on that unforgettable day, with the flush of



2)  of place or direction:  behind the house,  in front of the house,

in the distance, at a distance, across the street, at the corner of the street, at the top of the page, at the bottom of, downstairs;


3)  of manner oron purpose, by chance,withouta glance,with his fists clenched,with

attendant  tears streaming, down her cheeks,in a whisper, full ofindignation,  

circumstances      side by  side,  as if to stop him, never  to come  back;


4) of degree or measure:rather (well, badly, etc.), greatly (sur­prised, astonished,

disappointed, etc.)to perfection, particularly, deeply, fairly well, 

over head and ears;


5) of cause:   quite worn out, because of one's careless­ness, not being able to ...,

there being no time left, it being late;


6) of condition:weather permitting, but for (one's help, advice, kindness, etc.), if

possible(nec­essary, obligatory), if (unless) discovered (asked,

required, etc.);


7) of comparison:                as if asleep (in doubt, etc.), like (all elderly people, all his relatives,

                                               a child etc.);


8) of concession:difficultas it was, in spite of (the diffi­culties, the nasty weather,

etc.), although quitetired (much weaker, etc.), notwith­standing hi

success (promise, etc.);


9) of purpose:.);                    for you to (have it, see it, etc.), in order to soothe the baby (to make it

                                         clear  etc.),  lest  he should forget it.


Exercise 6. Point out the kind of adverbial modifier, and state by what it is expressed. Translate into Russian.


1. Gallio slowly nodded his head. (Douglas) 2. He's coming on Satur­day at one o'clock. (Cronin) 3. Lucia stopped them in their tracks with a stern command. (Douglas) 4. Sally was sitting on the front seat of the buggy, dumb and unhappy at being ignored. (Prichard) 5. I feel my own deficiencies too keenly to presume so far. (Shaw) 6. A few miners hung on, hoping the mines .would reopen. (Prichard) 7. The first bar of gold raised hopes sky high. (Prichard) 8. She had to talk because of her desire to laugh. (Mansfield) 9. Gallio pushed back his huge chair and rose to his full height as if preparing to deliver an address. (Doug­las) 10. He takes aglass and holds it to Essie to be filled. (Shaw) 11.Morris was walking too quickly for Sally to keep up with him. (Prichard) 12. The poor woman was annoyed with Morris for dumping his wife on her. (Prichard) 13. It was quite a long narrative. (Douglas) 14. Of course Laura and Jose were far too grown-up to really care about such things. (Mansfield) 15. Now and then Gavin would stop to point out silently some rarity. (Cronin) 16. And for all her quiet mariner,' and' her quiet smile, she was full of trouble. (Dickens) 17. The young school­teacher's spirits rose to a decided height. (Dreiser) 18. Evil report, with time and chance to help it, travels patiently, and travels far. (Collins)


Exercise 7. Follow the direction for Exercise  6.


1.At the top of the stairs she paused to wave to him. (Douglas) 2. Marcellus accepted this information without betraying his amaze­ment. (Douglas) 3. Having knocked on his door, she firmly entered Grandpa's room. (Cronin) 4. After waiting for a few minutes, he marched up the steps, closely followed by Demetrius. (Douglas) 5. Why do you always look at things with such dreadfully practical eyes? (London) 6. David appeared in the open door, one hand clutching a sheaf of bills, under his other arm an account book. (Stone) 7. That night I could scarcely sleep for thinking of it. (Cronin) 8. She did feel silly holding Moon's hand like that. (Mansfield) 9. Then Gallio cleared his throat, and faced his son with troubled eyes. (Douglas)10. We have some excep­tionally fine roses this year. (Douglas) 11. Jonathan shook his head slowly, without looking up, his tongue bulging his cheek. (Douglas) 12. But it was of no use. Marcellus' melancholy was too heavy to be lifted. (Douglas) 13. She [Sally] never would have been able to make a success of the dining-room but for the kindness and assistance of the men. (Prichard) 14. On being informed of the old man's flight, his fury was unbounded, (Dickens) 15. To be a complete artist it is not enough to be a painter, sculptor or architect. (Stone) 16. Sally was furi­ous with herself for having fainted. (Prichard) 17. With all her faults, she was candor herself. (Hardy) 18. The receiving overseer, Roger Kendall, though thin and clerical, was a rather capable man. (Dreiser)

Exercise 8. Point out all the adverbial modifiers expressed by Predicative Constructions. Translate into Russian.


1. Marcellus strode heavily to and fro before the entrance, his im­patience mounting. (Douglas) 2. On her applying to them, reassured by this resemblance, for a direction to Miss Dorrit, they made way for her to enter a dark hall. (Dickens) 3. Well, women's faces have had too much power over me already for me not to fear them.   (Hardy)4.  I almost doubt whether I ought not to go a step farther, and burn the letter at once, for fear of its falling into wrong hands. (Collins)5.  Michelangelo went to Jacopo's side, ran his hand caressingly over the sarcophagus, his fingers tracing out in its low relief the funeral procession of fighting men and horses. (Stone) 6. Michelangelo went into the yard and sat in the baking sun with his chin resting on his chest. (Stone) 7. That over, she sat back with a sigh and softly rubbed her knees. (Mansfield) 8. He opened the door for the Senator to pre­cede him. (Douglas) 9. They were returning to Fogarty's; their hands full of flowers. (Prichard) 10. She pressed his hand mutely, her eyes dim. (London) 11. His being an older man, that made it all right. (War­ren) 12. On the second of these days Granacci burst into the studio, his .usually placid eyes blinking hard. (Stone) 13. He stood beside me in silence, his candle in his hand. (Cotton Doyle) 14. In a room within the house, Cowperwood, his coat and vest off, was listening to Aileen's account of her troubles. (Dreiser) 15. There was room enough for me to sit between them, and no more. (Collins)