XXIV. Adverbial clauses



Exercise 1. Point out the adverbial clauses of comparison or manner and define the

conjunctions.

 

1.The intervals were never as long as they had seemed(Greene). 2. Roy was as sick as he expected to be (Aldridge). 3. It proved more difficult to get out of the Phat Diem area than it had been to get in (Greene). 4. Roy watched these two men as had never watched them before (Aldridge). 5. Roy was stretched to his full length moaning sometimes, as if he were in pain (Aldridge). 6. “He will not be long”, she said as though I needed comfort for his absence (Greene).

 

Exercise 2. Classify the subordinate clauses joined by as into adverbial clauses of comparison and manner, adverbial clauses of time or cause or attributive clauses.

1. Roy did as he was told, and as he felt the weight taken off his back he found it more difficult to stand (Aldridge). 2. Write that you decline to support this scheme of hers, as you hold it to a dishonest scheme (Whide). 3. The Coroner himself had had business relations with French persons in his capacity as a solicitor, and could assure such of the jury as had never been in France that they ought to allow for these different standards       ( Sayers). 4. Scotty had liked Andy just as they had all liked him, but it was clear that he liked Andy no more (Aldridge). 5. I never saw such luck as that fellow had (Cronin). 6. Roy was so tired as he walked in the night that sleep seemed all the ultimate good that man could require (Aldridge). 7. I want you in my room and as Helen Burns is with you, she may come too (Bronte).

Exercise 3. Make up sentences with adverbial clauses of comparison according to the

patterns.

 

Pattern I

Principal clause                Subordinate clause

 

  as if                    Subjunctive Mood of the type

                         as though             were, spoke (had been, had spoken)

 

          e.g. She speaks (spoke) English so well as if she were a native.

                 She looks(looked) so pale as though she had been ill for some time.

 

A.    1. She dances so well as if… 2. Why do you keep whispering as if … 3. He treated me so badly as though …  4. … as if he really thought so …  5. … as if she had never seen me.  6. … as though he were sick.   7. She ran so fast as if … 8. … as if nothing could include her to. 9. The little girl behaved as if … 10. … as though I were a stranger. 11. I will act as if … 12. The boy was stammering as if …

 

 

Pattern I

                    Principal clause                                 Subordinate clause

 

                                                             as if                          

                                                            as though                     Indicative Mood

 

 e.g. He acts as if he is a coward.

             He acted as if he was a coward.

 

B.     1. He teaches them so well as if … 2. … as if he knows me. 3. She is reciting the poem  in such a hurry as if … 4. … as tough he has lived here for ages. 5. They were packing  so hastily as though … 6. … as if he is deaf. 7. … as if she does not know me. 8. Don’t run so fast as if … 9. She passed by without greeting as if… .

 

Exercise 4.  Translate the sentences using adverbial clauses of comparison and manner.     

 

1. Девочка говорит с матерью шепотом, как будто боится, что кто-нибудь услышит. 2.Молодой отец нес ребенка, как будто он боялся уронить его. 3. Эта студентка будет хорошей преподавательницей. Она уже сейчас ведет урок, так, как будто преподает уже несколько лет. 4. Он так тщательно готовит доклад, как будто он должен делать его не на занятиях, а на научной конференции. 5. Он повторил свой ответ несколько раз, как будто повторение могло лучше передать значение его слов. 6.Том красил забор так, как будто эта работа действительно доставляла ему удовольствие.

 

COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF CONDITION

Exercise 1. Point out the adverbial clauses of condition and define the conjunctions. Point

out the sentences with asyndetic subordination.

 

1.I don’t know what’ll become of him if he goes on like this (Galsworthy). 2. I will leave the door ajar, in case you call me (Voynich). 3. Work’s no use unless you believe in it(Galsworthy). 4. Supposing she was the thief, why should let out her secret to Mr. Franklin? (Collins). 5. Had she been Marlott she would have had less dread (Hardy).  6. Suppose you had done all this, how would you answer then if you were asked whether you were coward? (Shaw). 7. Once you start, it won’t be so easy to get off (Cronin).

 

Exercise 2. Make up sentences with adverbial clauses of condition according to the

patterns.

 

Pattern I

                    Principal clause                                Subordinate clause

Subjunctive Moodof the typeSubjunctive Moodof the

             Should/would+ non-perfect were, spoke  (had been, had spoken)

             or perfect infinitive

 

e.g. I should(would) do the work now if I were free.

       If I had read the article, I should know its contents.

       If I had been free(were free),   I should have done it yesterday.

 

A.1.  If the boy had found the book, … .  2. The horse would have won the face if … .  3. … they would be free now. 4. If were you,  … 5. They would have left long ago … . 6. … if you had called yesterday. 7. In case the librarian were out, … 8. Suppose you had gone there yourself, … 9. … provided they got the material. 10. Supposing we had all the information at our disposal… . 11. I would not have … unless … 142. If only …, they would not … .

 

Pattern II

                    Principal clause                                Subordinate clause

 

Subjunctive Moodof the type

             Should/would+ non-perfectcould, might + non-perfect or

             or perfect infinitive                                              perfect infinitive

 

e.g. I should(would) help him if I could (might).

       If he could (might) have helped you, he would have done it.

 

B. 1.If they could have sent the telegram, … 2. …. They would have started in time. 3.  … if the girl might stay there for a weekend. 4. They would be glad to … 5. …if the doctor could have come in time. 6. … the students would have postponed the visit. 7. If the children could walk this distance, … 8. I should not have asked you for help if … . 9. The woman would like to speak to  her sick husband if … 10/ … if he might.

 

Pattern III

                    Principal clause                                Subordinate clause

 

could, might + non-perfect or                                        Subjunctive Moodof the type

         or  perfect infinitive                                           were, spoke (had been, had spoken)

 

e.g. He could (might) accompany you there if he were free.

 He could (might) have accompanied you there if he had been (were) free.

 

C.    1. If the girl were ready, … 2. … the professor might have offered you his help. 3. … if the teacher had explained the new rule. 4. … the man might see you off.  5. If I had been introduced to the man, …  6. He could have rejected the proposal if … 7. Suppose …, the accident might have been avoided. 8. The work could be done without delay, if only … 9. He might come jet if … 10. I could not resist the temptation if …

 

 

Pattern IV

                    Principal clause                                Subordinate clause

 

Subjunctive Moodof the typeSubjunctive Moodof the

             Should/would+ non-perfectwere to + non-perfect infinitive

Infinitive

 

D.    1. If I were to come across this book, … 2. I should be delighted if I …  3. … she would let me know at once. 4. If the party were to arrive next week, … 5. … if  you were to take part in the discussion. 6. … we should see all the places of interest. 7. Were I … I should certainly join in. 8. The doctor promised that if I were to …  9. Were you in my place …  10. If I were to arrange an evening party, … .

 

Exercise 4.  Translate the sentences using adverbial clauses of condition.   

 

1.Лэнни понимал, что если бы он проявил смирение и страх в разговоре с белым человеком, тот не ударил бы его (по Абрахамсу). 2. Герт  предупреждал Лэнни, что если он сделает еще один неверный шаг, это будет стоит ему жизни(по Абрахамсу). 3. Керри не понимала, что если бы она была одна, она должна была бы платить за комнату и стол и не могла бы тратить весь свой заработок на одежду и другие вещи (по Драйзеру). 4. Друг Давида Копперфильда просил его не думать о нем плохо, если бы их вдруг когда-либо разлучили (по Диккенсу). 5. Джейн сказала своей подруге Эллен, что если бы она была на ее месте, она бы возненавидела бы эту злую учительницу, которая постоянно мучила и унижала ее ( по Бронте). 6. Артур сказал Монтанелли, что если бы он получил свободу, он продолжал бы бороться против религии ( по Войнич). 7. Как вы думаете, если бы Монтанелли мог отказаться от религии, может быть, он мог бы спасти Овода? (поВойничу).

 

 COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF CONCESSION

 

Exercise 1. Point out the adverbial clauses of concession and define the conjunctions.

 

1. And though I had been to school in the cities and had come to Europe, I was still a son of the tribe (Abrahams). 2. Even though it was winter, flowers were blooming on the rockery – a mist of small blue flowers flailed over the marbled rocks (O’Brien). 3. And I always want to be let do as I like, no matter whether it is the will of gods or not (Shaw). 4. Mr. Gibson bowed, much pleased at such a compliment from such a man, was he lord or not (Kruisinga). 5. Although the sun was sinking, the heat did not seem to abate (Bennett). 6. Whatever happened now he would never quite get over this (Galsworthy). 7. It’s a bad sign whichever it was (Cronin). 8. Now, wherever you go, you  charm the world (Wilde). 9. But at any rate, however right or wrong these explanations were, one thing was certain – namely, that the ship had vanished (Cooke). 10. Do what I might, nothing could turn her from me (Doyle). 11. Notwithstanding it was enlivened by several exiting incidents, I was very glad when it was over (Lang).

 

Exercise 2. Make up sentences with adverbial clauses of condition according to the

patterns.

 

Pattern I

                    Principal clause                                Subordinate clause

 

                      Indicative Mood                 any connective            Indicative Mood                                                                            

 

e.g. The boy plays chess well though he is only ten years old.

 

A.                1. Although Belgium … small it has a large population. 2. I won’t do it even if …  3. Though he has been warned    4. I am going to help the man whatever mother …  5. No matter what your friend has written … 6. … whether he wanted it or not. 7. However … she practiced without a moment’s interruption. 8. I’ll join them no matter how …  9. Even though he has asked you to do it …  10. She has made that major mistake again in spite of the fact that …

 

  Pattern II

                    Principal clause                                                        Subordinate clause

 

          Indicative Moodany connectivea) may (might) + non- perfect

perfect infinitiveor

 b) should+ non-perfect infinitive

 

e.g. a) He will not succeed however hard he may try.

       He did not succeed however hard he may have tried.

       He knew he would not succeed however hard he might try.

       b) He will not succeed however hard he should try.

 

B. 1. No matter how … you can’t make him stop. 2. We shall insist upon this course of action whether they …  3. Whoever they … they could not get a satisfactory answer. 4. She realized that whatever …   5. Even though he …  he is determined to proceed. 6. However much the boy should work … 7. Although the ship may have altered its course in the fog … 8. … no matter when the patient might recover. 9. Whatever the boy may have done … 10. However late you should get the telegram…

11. No matter how well you should feel tomorrow the doctor’s order is … 12. … though the results of the new experiment should be slightly different.

 

 Pattern III

                    Principal clause                                                        Subordinate clause

 

Subjunctive Moodof the typeSubjunctive Moodof thetype           

should (would) speak                                                           were. spoke

             should(would) have spoken                                              (had been, had spoken)                                    

 

  e.g. They would not come on time even though we warned them.

         They would not havecome on time even though we hadwarned them.

 

C.1. Even though the trip had been more dangerous … 2. I should never play the piano as  well as you even if … 3. Even if … they would stay there overnight. 4. The crew would have been rescued even though … 5. The man …. Even if  you had not asked him for help. 6. Even though the travelers were aware of the danger … 7. … even though you could not get him on the plane. 8. …it will reach the place of destination in time.

 

Exercise 3.Paraphrase the sentence using the connectives suggested in brackets.

 

Model 1. Carrie applied to many places but she could not find any work (no matter where, wherever). - No matter where (wherever) Carrie applied (may have applied) she could not find any work.

 

1.Andrew made many calls and received many patients but Mrs. Page was not satisfied (no matter how many) ( after Cronin). 2. Everything Christne said or did in those days, annoyed Andrew (whatever, no matter what) (after Cronin). 3. The guest (Mr.Griffith) was very careful and secretive and jet the landlady soon noticed that there was something queer about him ( though, even though, no matter how) (after Wells). 4. Lanny and Sarie could have reached Cape Town, but they would have never lived in peace there (no matter whether, even though) (after Abrahams). 5. Dr. Kemp was interested in Griffith’s experiments but he would have never agreed to work with him (no matter how much, no matter how, however much, though) (after Wells). 6. Montanelli could have helped the Gadfly to escape, but they would have never come to an understanding for neither of them would give up his beliefs (although, even though) (after Voynich).7. Professor Higgins taught Eliza the standard English pronunciation but never the less she could not pass for a lady (even though) (after Shaw).

 

Model 2. If the doctor had examined the young man more carefully, he would have found something wrong with him. – Even if the doctor had examined the young man more carefully he would not have found anything wrong with him.

 

1.If David had behaved better, Mr. Murdstone would have treated him differently. 2. Mr.Murdstone wouldn’t have sent David to Salem House if his mother had protested against it more strongly. 3. If Pegotty had been sent away David’s life would not have been miserable. 4. David would never have found Miss Trotwood’s cottage if he had not accidently met Janet, his aunt’s maid.5. If Mr.Dick had not given her any advice, Miss Trotwood would not have known what she should do with David (after Dickens). 6. If Andrew had been more a little more experienced, he would have put an end to the outbreak of typhoid at once.7. Had he known what kind of job he was talking he would never have accepted Mrs. Page’s offer (after Cronin). 8. If Nom had not  come to see Aunt Polly that night, she would not have forgiven him for running away to the uninhabited island (after Twain). 9. If Tom had expected to meet Injun Joe in the cave, he would not have ventured to search for the treasure. 10. If Tom had not met Huck on the way to school, he would never have come late to the  lesson (after Twain).

 

Exercise 4.  Translate the sentences using adverbial clauses of concession.

 

1.Что бы ты там ни говорил, я буду поступать так, как решила. 2. Кто бы ни пришел, не мешайте мне.

3. Где бы он сейчас ни был, немедленно найдите его и приведите сюда. 4. Когда бы вы ни пришли домой, позвоните мне по телефону. 5. Как бы поздно он ни ложился спать, он всегда встает в 6 часов утра. 6. Как бы рано вы ни встали, разбудите меня. 7. Каков бы ни был ответ, дайте мне знать сразу. 8. К кому бы я ни обращался, никто не может решить эту задачу. 9. Куда бы я ни пошел, всюду встречаю знакомых. 10. Сколько бы я ни занимался, все мне кажется, что я плохо знаю урок. 11. Кем бы вы ни хотели быть – переводчиком или преподавателем, прежде всего вы должны хорошо знать язык. 12. Пусть даже он не сможет довести работу до конца, он сделает большую часть и облегчит этим нашу задачу. 13. Хотя бы даже было и очень холодно, я бы с удовольствием пошел пешком. 14. Пускай бы даже  и его не было сейчас дома, все равно радо отнести ему книгу, как мы обещали.15. Мы всегда знали, - что бы ни случилось, мы могли обратиться к нашей старой учительнице за советом и помощью.

 

COMLEX SENTENCES WITH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF RESULT

Exercise 1. Point out the adverbial clauses of result and define the conjunctions together with the prepositions or point out the sentences with asyndetic subordination.

 

1.When they reached the front it was dark, and the shutters were closed, so that nothing of the interior could be seen (Hardy ). 2. So heavy was the stress of the storm just  at this place that I had the hardest task to win my way up the hill (Wells). 3. They replied in such a voice that he no longer pretended ignorance (Galsworthy). 4. Roses on the veranda were still in bloom, and the hedges evergreen, so that there was almost nothing of middle-aged autumn to chill the mood (Galsworthy). 5. So great was the shortage of paper in the Confederacy now that Gerald’s note  was written between the lines of her last letter to him ( Mitchell). 6. I am so crazy about music I don’t care what colour he is (Parker). 7. Several shots were fired; but such was the hurry of the Marksman that no one appeared to have taken effect( Stevenson).

 

Exercise 2. Use inverted word order in the complex sentences with adverbial clauses of

result according to the patterns:

 

Pattern I

 

 Principal clause                               

So + predicative + subject expressed by a noun

e.g.   Her  joy was so great that she stood fascinated. -  So great was her joy that she stood fascinated.

 

A.1. The summer night was so hot and still that through every opened window came in but hot air (Galsworthy). 2. His remarks were so strong that she, startled, relapsed into silence (Mitchell). 3. Her Dutch is so rusty she can no longer speak it (Parker). 4. After an hour Scarlett’s hands were so swollen and bruised she could hardly flex them (Mitchell).

 

Pattern II

 Principal clause                               

 

   So + predicative + subject expressed by a pronoun

 

e.g. She was so glad that she could not utter a word. – So glad she was that she could not utter a word.

 

B.1. She was so amused by his bland impudence that she laughed and overlooked his past mistakes (Mitchell). 2. He was so intent upon his reflections that he unconscious of approach (Dickens). 3. He was so friendly I was beginning to think he was struck on me (Dreiser). 4. He is so talented and so loved in society that I believe he is a general favorite (Bronte). 5. There were so high that the breeze did not bring them the grumble of the surf below (Gordon).

Pattern III

 Principal clause                

 

So +adverbial modifier + subject expressed by a noun or pronoun

e.g. He (the man) spoke so excitedly that we could hardly understand him. – So excitedlydid he (the man)  speak that we could hardly understand him.

 

C.1.He ran so quickly the I couldn’t catch him (Hornby). 2. Marigny looked at him so fixedly that he waited to hear what the others had to say (Tracy). He worries so much about his position that he cannot sleep at night (Hornby). 4. Sir Wigmore started so violently that he knocked his  brief over the head of the Clerk to the House of Lords sitting below him (Sayers).

 

Exercise 3. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate conjunctions and separate the adverbial

clauses of result by a comma  wherever necessary.

 

1.Also she spoke in a curiously loud and rising tone… what she said echoed audibly all the way down the room (Murdoch). 2. The activity of translating of which had seemed the plainest thing in the world, turned out to be an act so complex and extraordinary… it was puzzling to see how any human being could perform it (Murdoch). 3. None of them had  seen the Marcians, and they had but the vaguest ideas of them … they pilled me with questions (Wells). 4. Whenever I have  gone there have been either so many people … I have not been able to see the pictures, which was dreadful, or so many pictures … I have not been able to see the people,  which was worse (Wilde). 5. The Marriage of Soames with Annette took place in Paris on the last day of January 1901 with such privacy … not even Emily was told it was  accomplished ( Galsworthy). 6. Bosinney’s office was in Slone Street, close at hand … he would be able to keep his eyes continually on the plans (Galsworthy). 7. But the inflections of the English verb are so scanty … we need not to be surprised to find  that the distinction between indicative and subjunctive is very slight (Sweet).

Exercise 4.Translate sentences into English using adverbial clauses of result. Givevariants

withinvertedwordorderwhereverpossible.

 

1.Девочка была так напугана, что не могла двинуться с места. 2. Лектор говорил так убедительно, что никто не сомневался в правильности его утверждений. 3.Она смотрела на меня так пристально, что я не могла не обернуться. 4. Всю ночь море сильно бушевало, так что пароходы не  могли подойти к берегу. 5. Кинофильм произвел на учеников такое сильное впечатление, что они говорили о нем целую неделю. 6. Результаты эксперимента были вполне удовлетворительными, так что молодые ученые могли продолжить работу в том же направлений.  7. Море успокаивалось, что рыбаки надеялись, что они смогут отправиться рыбачить утром. 8. День был такой солнечный и морозный, что никому не хотелось сидеть дома, и в лесу.

THE ADVERBIAL CLAUSE OF TIME

Exercise 1. Point out conjunctions used to join the adverbial clauses of time.

1.The earth floor shook a little as they passed (Greene). 2. When she entered the room she greeted him with a bright face (Gordon). 3. Well, put your other shoe on, while Ted’s reading to Sue (Carter). 4. After I had met her she told me about her past (Daily Worker). 5. Roy looked over the northern country until he saw what he expected  to see (Aldridge). 6. He’ll stay till I come out (Aldridge). 7. She hangs up on me as soon as she recognizes my voice (Bellow). 8. I haven’t thought of anyone or anything else since I saw you last (Dreiser). 9. Foe some days afterwards he had an uncomfortable sensation of guiltiness whenever he was in Miss Mason’s presence (London). 10. Hong Kong is all hill except when the fog shuts out everything except the sea (Kipling). 11. But the door had scarcely closed behind her before it opened again, and she came in to announce (Bennett).

Exercise 2. Open the brackets using the appropriate tense of the verb. Refer the action in

the  subordinate clause to the future.

 

1 .I only hope Sam (to be) still there when you  (to come) out after winter (Aldridge). 2. When I (to die) he’ll do as we agreed… I don’t know when I (to be delivered) (Bellow). 3. He said that when he (to dry) himself with a towel, he (to get) dressed (Saxton). 4. When he stopped he could feel himself shivering and weakening, and the time was near when the four men (to outplace) him (Aldridge). 5. I’m not rich. But when my father (to die) I (to have) about fifty thousand dollars (Greene). 6. He started down at her waiting for the moment when she (to turn) her head and (to look) at him (Saxton).

Exercise 3. Paraphrase the sentences using adverbial clauses of time by since. Give variants

with different verb forms wherever possible.

Models: I haven’t seen them since that incident. - I haven’t seen them since that happened.

 He admitted that he had forgotten their faces since their meeting. - He admitted that he had   forgotten their faces since they (had) met.

 

1.You have never reproached me once since our separation (Saxton). 2. I found Mr. Chon’s go-down. Nothing had changed since my last visit (Greene). 3. Ever since our days on the farm I’ve wanted to tell you but could not (Gordon). 4. This “Department of Dirty Tricks” . as it is called, has had a hand in every American plot against peace since the end of the war (Daily Worker). 5. And as for himself – work, work, work that’s all he had been since his discharge from the army (Gordon). 6. Since his reunion with Ren Anthony had spent all the time he could with her (Gordon).

 

Exercise 4. Make up sentences with adverbial clauses of time according to the patterns.

 

Pattern I

                    Principal clause Subordinate clause

 

                       It is …               since           a) Past indefinite

 b) Present perfect (non-continuous or continuous)

                         e.g.  a) It is two hours since I saw them last.

                                 b) It is two hours sinceshe has been in the room.

 

A.1. It is ten months since… 2. It is over a year since …  3. It is ages since… 4. It is eight hours since … 5. It is twenty minutes since … 6. You have changed a lot. It is five years since .. 7. How time flies! It … since we have been living in this new district. 8. It … since she … in the hospital. She is taking treatment and is slowly getting better.

 

 

 Pattern II

                    Principal clause                                        Subordinate clause

 

                              It  was …                          since                      a) Past Perfect

   b) Past Indefinite

                         e.g.  a) It was eight hours since the children had left.

                                 b) It was a long time since we discussed the matter.

 

B.1. It was ages since … 2. It was a long while since … 3. It was over twenty years since … 4. It was some time since … 5. It was nine hours since … 6. The house was empty and cold. It was no less than … since … 7. The boy had grown into a young man and we could hardly recognize him. It was over three years since … 8. What a pleasure it was to be out in the fresh air again! It was four months since … 9. It … since  he had returned from his last expedition to the Arctic.

 

Pattern III

                    Principal clause                                         Subordinate clause

 

                             scarcely

      Past perfect       hardly                          when                        Past indefinite

 

                         e.g.   He had scarcely entered the room when the bell rang.

                                 Scarcely had he entered the room when the bell rang.

 

C. 1. Mary had hardly seen her mother entered when …  2. … when she cried. 3. The doctor had scarcely examined the patient … 4. … when the train arrived. 5. Scarcely had … 6. The postman had hardly knocked at the door … 7. Hardly had the day broken … 8. … when the door was flung open. 9. … when the boy awoke.

 

Pattern IY

 

 Principal clause                                        Subordinate clause

 

                       No sooner + Past perfect               than                     Past indefinite

 

                       e.g. He had no sooner entered the room than the bell rang.

 

D. 1. She had no sooner left the house … 2. … than they rushed out of the room. 3. No sooner had the teacher asked the question … 4. No sooner … than the icicle fell on the pavement. That was really a narrow escape.5. The singer had no sooner appeared on the stage … 6. … than the pupils burst out laughing. 7. …  than the child went to sleep.

 

Exercise 5. Classify the subordinate clauses introduced by wheninto object clauses, attributive clauses and adverbial clauses of time.

1. I’ll give you a call when I see Sommerville (Carter). 2. He thought it best to be clean-shaven  when Will arrived (Bellow). 3.The doctor had better given you a sedative and we will talk tomorrow, when you have had a night’s sleep (Voynich). 4. We never knew when they’d break in and arrest us all ( Saxton). 5. “ Tell them to start,” he said, “ tell them I don’t know when I’ll be back” (Maurier). 6. When she’s done reading it, ask a question (Carter). 7. Did I really believe that I would die when thinking stopped? (Bellow). 8. The day will come when you will know why I am silent even to you (Collins). 9. Do know the time when he will come? 10. Everybody was glad when he came at last. 11. I have no idea when he will come. 12. It is very important when we must start. 13. The difficulty is when we shall be able to do it.

 

Exercise 6. Translate into English usingwhile, as, when, as long as, till(until), before.

 

1. Когда я просматривал этот журнал, я нашел в нем интересную статью о старинной музыке. 2. Я, конечно, уже  выберу нужные мне книги, когда вы придете в библиотеку. 3. Когда вы будете читать эту статью, выписывайте все новые слова. 4. Он дочитал статью до конца, пока мы с вами ее обсуждали. 5. Я не могла дать вам этот журнал, когда вы меня попросили. 6. Пока дети купались, мы собирали ягоды. 7. Мы будем жить в деревне, пока не наступит холодная погода. 8. Поезжайте за город, пока стоит такая теплая погода. 9. Она читала, пока не стемнело. 10. Я не успокоюсь, пока не узнаю о его здоровье. 11. Он мне все рассказал, пока мы дошли до дому. 12. Как поживает Аня? – Я не знаю. Я ее не видела, с тех пор как вернулась из Крыма. 13. Нет смысла сейчас обсуждать работу. Когда я напишу вторую часть, мы встретимся и обсудим обе части вместе. 14. Он очень устал и после того как поужинал, лег спать. 15. Мы едва узнали друг друга. Я не видела ее, с тех пор как окончили школу.  АК у нее уже большие дети. Уже пять лет, как ее сын ходит в школу. 16. Они уже ушли, когда мы вернулись. 17. Отец был расстроен. Он чувствовал себя гораздо хуже, с тех пор как начал принимать это лекарство. 18. Пока он ел, он рассказывал им о том, что произошло. 1-. Мальчик жил у бабушки все то время, что мать была в отъезде. 20. Они не разговаривали, в то время как шли по дороге, так как сердились друг на друга.

 

THE ADVERBIAL CLAUSE OF PLACE

Exercise 1. Point out the adverbial clauses of place and define the conjunctions together

with the prepositions, if any.

 

1. We were invited to go back where he came from (Hughes). 2. From where he sat he could see a cluster of apple trees in blossom (Galsworthy). 3. Take us to where we can work on thing without being disturbed (Murdock). 4. And as soon as the messenger was gone he took a chair where he could see the street (Galsworthy). 5. The car which had passed him and lost him and then returned was just where it should have been, just where the player desired it to be (Grimm). 6. Let’s meet where we used to walk in summer.

 

Exercise 2.Define the type of the subordinate clauses joined by where and state whether

where is a conjunction, a connective or a relative adverb.

 

1. No one knew where the fighting was (Mitchell). 2. Turning to the right she ran down the side garden path to where she had seen the face (Christie). 3. I like the country place where we lived last year.4. The doctor mopped his brow and cast a quizzical glance at the corner, where his wife sat among the chaperons (Mitchell). 5. But he isn’t where she thinks he is (Christie). 6. Tuppence had intended taking her for a walk, but it was raining hard, so the two of them adjourned to the bedroom, where Betty led the way to the bottom drawer of the bureau where her playing were kept (Christie). 7. Dear Raymond knows that if only I know where he is or where he’s going  I don’t worry  quite so much(Christie). 8. That was where they walked up the sleighsmoothered road (Hemingway). 9. Where the conference would be held didn’t matter much (Morning Star). 10. It is of importance where they will spend their vacation. 11. I wondered where they intended to go. 12. The question is where they will spend their summer vacation.

 

Exercise 3. Complete the following sentences and define the type of the subordinate clauses

introduced by where.

 

1. I didn’t know where … 2. I met her at the place where … 3. I discovered that the book was not where … 4. The mother left the child where … 5. Where she was waiting for me is … 6. You should have gone to the town where … 7. The difficulty was where… 8. He walked straight into the hall where … 9. I hoped I should find  her where … 10. “ Where …, is what I’d like to know” said the girl in a worried voice. 11.  Ask him where …  12. It has not been decided yet where … 13. We are very fond of the cottage where …        14. Don’t you know where … 15. Where … is of no importance. 15. It happened where … 16. The problem to settle is where … 17. She doesn’t tell me where … 18. They are quite happy where … 19. For the last time she had a look at the house where … 20. That is where … 21. I should like to find a place where … 22. No plant grow where …

 

Exercise 4. Translate into English using adverbial clauses of place.

 

1.Оставайся там, где ты есть! 2. Мы решили, в конце концов, оставить вещи там, где они были. 3. Ученик смотрел куда угодно, но только не туда, куда показывал учитель. 4. Я оставил тебе записку там, где мы договорились. 5. Тетя Полли сказала Тому: «Иди туда, куда я тебе говорю, и не останавливайся, и ни с кем поболтать». 6. Туристы положили свои вещи в таком месте, где они не могли намокнут. 7. Я люблю проводить отпуск там, где можно купаться. 8. Возвращайся туда, откуда ты пришел, и продолжай свою работу. 9. Пусть они отправляются туда,  откуда пришли.

 

THEADVERBIALCLAUSEOFCAUSE

Exercise 1. Point out the adverbial clauses of place and define the conjunctions together

with the prepositions, if any.

 

1.“ Oh, I dare say she is crying because she could not go out with Missis in the carriage”, said Bessie (Ch. Bronte). 2. Write that you decline to support this scheme of hers as you hold it to be a dishonest (Wilde). 3. I think he saw the effect he had produced on me for some days afterwards he wrote and asked me to come and see him (Wilde). 4. We took our umbrellas, because we were afraid it would rain; for the barometer had been falling for some time (Sweet). 5. Mrs. Popply, since you express your regret I suppose there is nothing more to be said (B. Shaw). 6. But I won’t allow that, seeing that it would never suit my case (Ch. Bronte). 7. Some of old Forsyte’s pictures are going to be lent. Considering he died saying them, they owe it to him (Galsworthy). 8. He took in Irene on the ground that he had not entertained her since she was a bride (Galsworthy). 9. On this  occasion the preparations were of a more elaborate nature than usual, owing to the fact that for the past  four days Mr. Samuel Griffiths,  the husband and father, had been absent (Driser).10. Don’t say: “ I arrived in Chicago…” Note “ arrived at…” is correct, for the reason that the city is regarded for the time being, as a mere point (Baker).

Exercise 2. Analyze the order of clauses and say whether the position of the adverbial

clauses joine3d by different conjunctions is free or  fixed.

 

1.He killed her because she loved Sam du Plesis (Abrahams). 2. He had met a few – not so many as yet – nine people here, since he hadn’t been here so very long himself – four months all told ( Dreiser). 3. She made no reply, for she really spoke, husbanding her aged voice (Galsworthy). 4. He looked suspiciously about him, for the men were conversing in groups, and he learned to the subject of their talk (Ch. Dickens). 5. Of course, as you didn’t turn up this morning, I very nearly said yes (Wilde). 6. They did not say anything because they were asleep (Aldridge).

Exercise 3.Fill in the blanks with the conjunctions because, for, since and as.

1.He refused to take money… he couldn’t give any guarantees that the treatment would help (Carter). 2. And … I am married and childless, I wish to adopt her during my life and bequeath her at my death whatever I may have to leave (Ch. Bronte). 3. If the black Man had come alone, they would have protested and made  loud remarks, but …  there was a white man with him they did not know how to react ( Abrahams). 4. They had come straight from the plants, … the hands that they carried the roses were grimed with toil (Carter). 5. Her father, indeed, was always telling her that she only drank China tea… it was a fashion (Galsworthy). 6. All Chenkin’s relations – and they were numerous, … marriage was common in the valleys – had become welded into a hostile unit (Cronin). 7. She had walked some distance, … her shoes were worn to pieces (Ch. Dickens). 8. He walked and waited, until he feigned a wild rush, which he stopped midway, … until he had seen the glint of metal (London). 9. Never had  there been so full an assembly, … mysteriously united in spite of all their differences, they had taken arms against a common peril (Galsworthy).

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into English using adverbial clauses of cause:

 

1. Я все эти дни не записывал впечатления, потому что писать не хотелось. 2. Раз вы уже настаиваете, мне придется подчиняться. 3. Девочка, должно быть, серьезно болела: она очень бледна. 4. Андрей решил, поскольку он находится здесь, он может, по крайней мере, зайти и договориться о встрече. 5. Возьмите с собой плащ, так как барометр падает и небо покрыта тучами. 6. Ребенка надо отдать в музыкальную школу, так как у него хороший слух.

THE ADVERBIAL CLAUSE OF TIME

Exercise 1. Point out conjunctions used to join the adverbial clauses of time.

1.The earth floor shook a little as they passed (Greene). 2. When she entered the room she greeted him with a bright face (Gordon). 3. Well, put your other shoe on, while Ted’s reading to Sue (Carter). 4. After I had met her she told me about her past (Daily Worker). 5. Roy looked over the northern country until he saw what he expected  to see (Aldridge). 6. He’ll stay till I come out (Aldridge). 7. She hangs up on me as soon as she recognizes my voice (Bellow). 8. I haven’t thought of anyone or anything else since I saw you last (Dreiser). 9. Foe some days afterwards he had an uncomfortable sensation of guiltiness whenever he was in Miss Mason’s presence (London). 10. Hong Kong is all hill except when the fog shuts out everything except the sea (Kipling). 11. But the door had scarcely closed behind her before it opened again, and she came in to announce. (Bennett)

Exercise 2. Open the brackets using the appropriate tense of the verb. Refer the action in

the  subordinate clause to the future.

 

1 .I only hope Sam (to be) still there when you  (to come) out after winter (Aldridge). 2. When I (to die) he’ll do as we agreed… I don’t know when I (to be delivered) (Bellow). 3. He said that when he (to dry) himself with a towel, he (to get) dressed (Saxton). 4. When he stopped he could feel himself shivering and weakening, and the time was near when the four men (to outplace) him (Aldridge). 5. I’m not rich. But when my father (to die) I (to have) about fifty thousand dollars (Greene). 6. He started down at her waiting for the moment when she (to turn) her head and (to look) at him (Saxton).

Exercise 3. Paraphrase the sentences using adverbial clauses of time by since. Give variants

with different verb forms wherever possible.

 

Models: I haven’t seen them since that incident. - I haven’t seen them since that happened.

 He admitted that he had forgotten their faces since their meeting. - He admitted that he had  forgotten their faces since they (had) met.

 

1.You have never reproached me once since our separation (Saxton). 2. I found Mr. Chon’s go-down. Nothing had changed since my last visit (Greene). 3. Ever since our days on the farm I’ve wanted to tell you but could not (Gordon). 4. This “Department of Dirty Tricks” . as it is called, has had a hand in every American plot against peace since the end of the war (Daily Worker). 5. And as for himself – work, work, work that’s all he had been since his discharge from the army (Gordon). 6. Since his reunion with Ren Anthony had spent all the time he could with her (Gordon).

 

Exercise 4. Make up sentences with adverbial clauses of time according to the patterns.

 

Pattern I

                    Principal clause                                 Subordinate clause

 

                       It is …             since          a) Past indefinite

  b) Present perfect (non-continuous or continuous)

                         e.g.  a) It is two hours since I saw them last.

                                 b) It is two hours sinceshe has been in the room.

 

A.1. It is ten months since… 2. It is over a year since …  3. It is ages since… 4. It is eight hours since … 5. It is twenty minutes since … 6. You have changed a lot. It is five years since .. 7. How time flies! It … since we have been living in this new district. 8. It … since she … in the hospital. She is taking treatment and is slowly getting better.

 

 

 Pattern II

                    Principal clause                                        Subordinate clause

 

It  was …                     since                      a) Past Perfect

 b) Past Indefinite

                         e.g.  a) It was eight hours since the children had left.

                                 b) It was a long time since we discussed the matter.

 

B.1. It was ages since … 2. It was a long while since … 3. It was over twenty years since … 4. It was some time since … 5. It was nine hours since … 6. The house was empty and cold. It was no less than … since … 7. The boy had grown into a young man and we could hardly recognize him. It was over three years since … 8. What a pleasure it was to be out in the fresh air again! It was four months since … 9. It … since  he had returned from his last expedition to the Arctic.

 

Pattern III

                    Principal clause                                         Subordinate clause

 

                             scarcely

      Past perfect       hardly                          when                        Past indefinite

 

                         e.g.   He had scarcely entered the room when the bell rang.

                                 Scarcely had he entered the room when the bell rang.

C. 1. Mary had hardly seen her mother entered when …  2. … when she cried. 3. The doctor had scarcely examined the patient … 4. … when the train arrived. 5. Scarcely had … 6. The postman had hardly knocked at the door … 7. Hardly had the day broken … 8. … when the door was flung open. 9. … when the boy awoke.

 

Pattern IY

 

 Principal clause                                        Subordinate clause

 

                       No sooner + Past perfect               than                     Past indefinite

 

                       e.g. He had no sooner entered the room than the bell rang.

 

D. 1. She had no sooner left the house … 2. … than they rushed out of the room. 3. No sooner had the teacher asked the question … 4. No sooner … than the icicle fell on the pavement. That was really a narrow escape.5. The singer had no sooner appeared on the stage … 6. … than the pupils burst out laughing. 7. …  than the child went to sleep.

 

Exercise 5. Classify the subordinate clauses introduced by when into object clauses, attributive clauses and adverbial clauses of time.

 

1. I’ll give you a call when I see Sommerville (Carter). 2. He thought it best to be clean-shaven  when Will arrived (Bellow). 3.The doctor had better given you a sedative and we will talk tomorrow, when you have had a night’s sleep (Voynich). 4. We never knew when they’d break in and arrest us all ( Saxton). 5. “ Tell them to start,” he said, “ tell them I don’t know when I’ll be back” (Maurier). 6. When she’s done reading it, ask a question (Carter). 7. Did I really believe that I would die when thinking stopped? (Bellow). 8. The day will come when you will know why I am silent even to you (Collins). 9. Do know the time when he will come? 10. Everybody was glad when he came at last. 11. I have no idea when he will come. 12. It is very important when we must start. 13. The difficulty is when we shall be able to do it.

 

Exercise 6. Translate into English usingwhile, as, when, as long as, till(until), before.

 

1. Когда я просматривал этот журнал, я нашел в нем интересную статью о старинной музыке. 2. Я, конечно, уже  выберу нужные мне книги, когда вы придете в библиотеку. 3. Когда вы будете читать эту статью, выписывайте все новые слова. 4. Он дочитал статью до конца, пока мы с вами ее обсуждали. 5. Я не могла дать вам этот журнал, когда вы меня попросили. 6. Пока дети купались, мы собирали ягоды. 7. Мы будем жить в деревне, пока не наступит холодная погода. 8. Поезжайте за город, пока стоит такая теплая погода. 9. Она читала, пока не стемнело. 10. Я не успокоюсь, пока не узнаю о его здоровье. 11. Он мне все рассказал, пока мы дошли до дому. 12. Как поживает Аня? – Я не знаю. Я ее не видела, с тех пор как вернулась из Крыма. 13. Нет смысла сейчас обсуждать работу. Когда я напишу вторую часть, мы встретимся и обсудим обе части вместе. 14. Он очень устал и после того как поужинал, лег спать. 15. Мы едва узнали друг друга. Я не видела ее, с тех пор как окончили школу.  АК у нее уже большие дети. Уже пять лет, как ее сын ходит в школу. 16. Они уже ушли, когда мы вернулись. 17. Отец был расстроен. Он чувствовал себя гораздо хуже, с тех пор как начал принимать это лекарство. 18. Пока он ел, он рассказывал им о том, что произошло. 1-. Мальчик жил у бабушки все то время, что мать была в отъезде. 20. Они не разговаривали, в то время как шли по дороге, так как сердились друг на друга

 


PARENTHETICAL CLAUSES

Exercise 1. Point out parenthetical clauses.  Translate the sentences into Russian.

 

 1.  "Well ma'am, she will soon be quite comfortable,  I hope," returned Mr. Chillip. 2. Peggotty seemed to take this aspersion very much to heart, I thought. 3. The heartiness of the ejaculation  start-    / led Mr. Dick exceedingly; and me, too, if I am to tell the truth. 4. "I don't know anything about it," said my aunt ... "I can't say, I am sure ..." (Dickens). 5. Would you wish me to shave my head and black my face... or something of that sort? I dare say, you would, Peggotty.  I dare say, you'd quite enjoy it. (Dickens).   6. Mrs. Ar-buthnot: Are you  talking of the child you abandoned? Of the child who, as far as you are concerned, might have died of hunger and of want? (Wilde). 7. Hector: The truth is, I made it [the anecdote] up for you.  ...  (Shaw).

 

Exercise 2. Point out parenthetical clauses. Translate into Russian.

1. You never liked her, she says, and you have made him feel that she isn't worthy of him. (Dreiser) 2. Already he was doing big things, so he thought, in surgery, and the older men in his line were regarding him with a rather uneasy eye. (Dreiser). 3. On one of these occasions, so Marie Redmond said, she came to her and announced that she was living in a basement room in one of the poorer sections of the city. (Dreiser) 4. As I say, I was fortunate to get her. (Murdoch) 5. Your story, you know, showed such breadth, and vigor, such maturity and depth of thought. (London) 6. Her conduct, it was clear, was little satisfactory to her mother, who scarcely mentioned her, or else the kind lady thought it was best to say nothing, and leave time to work out its cure. (Thackeray) 7. Thomas Esmond — captain Thomas, as he was called — became engaged in a gaming-house brawl, of which the consequence was a duel, and a wound so severe that he never — his surgeon said — could outlive it. (Thackeray) 8 Truly, I thought, here is one who is startlingly beautiful. (Dreiser) 9. The effect produced by both Lady Castlewood's children when they appeared in public was extraordinary, and the whole town speedily rang with their fame: such a beautiful couple, it was declared, never had been seen... (Thackeray) 10. She suggested that she would come over and pack up my Minton dinner service and one or two other things which she said must on no account be trusted to the removal men. (Murdoch)11. My breathing, even my heartbeat must, I felt already, be audible through the house like the panting of an engine. (Murdoch) 12. Two electric fires were burning in the room, but Antonia had insisted on lighting a coal fire, to cheer me up, as she put it. (Murdoch)